On September 1, 2020, part of the quay of Grimburgwal in Amsterdam collapsed. The main causes are thought to be narrow quay structural differences, locally deep canal beds, and weakening of masonry due to collisions. This is the result of a study conducted by a research team of experts from TU Delft, Deltaless, AMS Institute and SkyGEO, led by Mandicolf (TU Delft / Deltaless), on behalf of the city of Amsterdam. A complete report, including conclusions and recommendations regarding other quays in the city, was published by the City of Amsterdam on April 8, 2021.
Amsterdam has many kilometers of historic quays. The wharf varies from 50 to 300 years ago and consists of brick cantilever walls on a wooden deck supported by 3 to 6 rows of timber stakes. The city of Amsterdam faces the challenge of renewing its historic quay infrastructure. But which pier should be prioritized? The city of Amsterdam wants to learn how the knowledge gained from the failure analysis conducted in Grimburgwal can contribute to a better understanding of the behavior of other quays in the city.
On behalf of the city of Amsterdam, researchers conducted an analysis of the collapsed quay (so-called rapid evaluation). The approach used is what the consortium calls forensic engineering. Mandy Korff: “This approach was developed, among other things, at Delft University of Technology. When investigating detective-like incidents and accidents, we track the cause very accurately and systematically, learn from it, and so on in the future. In this case, I wanted to gain technical knowledge about the cause and situation of the collapse. Based on the findings, I can make recommendations for other quays. This knowledge is Amsterdam. Not only can it be applied to other cities as well. “
During the collapse, video images show Grimburgwal tilting forward over a length of 25 meters and disappearing into the canal. The rows of timber stakes that form the foundation of the quay deformed, then appeared to be broken and the structure collapsed. This deformation of the row of timber piles appears to have been caused by the local deeper depth of the canal bed. “Locally deepened canal beds are very likely to be caused by boats turning at this point in the canal,” the researchers said.
The shape of the wharf also needs to be taken into account. The structure of the wharf is slightly different and narrower than the other wharfs. Diving inspections (and short distances from the quay to the building) are supported only by two sequence piles, rather than the three piles where part of the quay is much more common in such structures. Showed that it is very likely.
Grimburgwal Destruction Mechanism Pile Structure
There were also existing cracks in the masonry of the quay. These existing cracks reduced the ability to redistribute various forces along the quay. As a result, the stronger part of the quay (which had three rows of piles) could no longer be loaded.
The final impetus for the collapse was probably the pavement renewal in May and August 2020. The renewal of the pavement put an additional load on the quay. The paved road construction was the result of the quay deformation that had already occurred.
Delft University of Technology: Grimburgwal Offers Lessons for Quay Rehabilitation Amsterdam-India Education | Global Education | Education News
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